Literature List

Literature List


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NCRP Report No. 151, Structural Shielding Design and Evaluation for Megavoltage X- and Gamma-Ray Radiotherapy Facilities (Section 7.2 and section 5.7)

Shielding White Paper, Accuray - for a copy of this paper please contact Accuray Customer Support via telephone: +1 (866) 668-8667

DIN 6347-2 Medical electron accelerators - Part 2: Rules for construction of structural radiation protection (



Andrews DW, Bednarz G, Evans JJ, et al. A review of 3 current radiosurgery systems. Surg Neurol 2006;66:559-564

Deinsberger R, Tidstrand J. Linac radiosurgery as a tool in neurosurgery. Neurosurg Rev 2005;28:79-88; discussion 89-90, 91

Friedman WA. LINAC radiosurgery. Neurosurg Clin N Am 1990;1:991-1008

Hitchcock E, Kitchen G, Dalton E, et al. Stereotactic LINAC radiosurgery. Br J Neurosurg 1989;3:305-312

Nakamura JL, Pirzkall A, Carol MP, et al. Comparison of intensity-modulated radiosurgery with gamma knife radiosurgery for challenging skull base lesions. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2003;55:99-109

Saunders WM, Winston KR, Siddon RL, et al. Radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformations of the brain using a standard linear accelerator: rationale and technique. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1988;15:441-447

Solberg TD, Goetsch SJ, Selch MT, et al. Functional stereotactic radiosurgery involving a dedicated linear accelerator and gamma unit: a comparison study. J Neurosurg 2004;101 Suppl 3:373-380

Timmerman R, Paulus R, Galvin J, et al. Stereotactic body radiation therapy for inoperable early stage lung cancer. JAMA 2010;303:1070-1076

Monte Carlo simulated correction factors for machine specific reference field dose calibration and output factor measurement using fixed and iris collimators on the CyberKnife system.  Francescon P, Kilby W, Satariano N, Cora S.  Phys Med Biol. 2012 May 23;57(12):3741-3758.

Stereotactic body radiation therapy: The report of AAPM Task Group 101 Medical Physics, Volume 37, Issue 8.

“Image-Guided Robotic Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Treatment of Lung Tumors. Chapter 23rd of “Robotic radiosurgery: Volume 1”. William T. Brown, Mark Perman, Xiaodong Wu, Jun Yang, James G. Schwade The Cyberknife Society Press, August 2005, 255- 268

Performance evaluation of a CyberKnife  G4 image-guided robotic stereotactic radiosurgery system Christos Antypas and Evaggelos Pantelis Phys. Med. Biol. 53 (2008) 4697–4718 doi:10.1088/0031-9155/53/17/016

Kilby W, Dooley JR, Kuduvalli G, Sayeh S, Maurer CR Jr. The CyberKnife Robotic Radiosurgery System in 2010. Technol Cancer Res Treat. 2010 Oct; 9(5):433-52. Review.

Accuracy of dose measurements and calculations within and beyond heterogeneous tissues for 6 MV photon fields smaller than 4 cm produced by Cyberknife Ellen E. Wilcoxa and George M. Daskalov Med. Phys. 35, 6, June 2008

Evaluation of GAFCHROMIC® EBT film for CyberKnife® dosimetry Ellen E. Wilcox and George M. Daskalov Med. Phys. 34, 6, June 2007

On the implementation of a recently proposed dosimetric formalism to a robotic radiosurgery system E. Pantelis Med. Phys. 37, 5, May 2010; DOI: 10.1118/1.3404289

Total scatter factors of small beams:  A multi detector and Monte Carlo study.  Paolo Francescon, Stefania Cora and Carlo Cavedon. Med.Phys.35,2. February 2008 [DOI:10.1118/1.2828195]


B. Heck, A. Jess-Hempen, H J Kreiner, H. Schöpgens, and A Mack, Accuracy and stability of positioning in radiosurgery:  Long term results of the Gamma Knife system , Med. Phys. 34, 1487-1495 (2007)

A. Ertl, W. Saringer, K. Heimberger, P. Kindl,
Quality assurance for the Leksell gamma unit: Considering magnetic resonance image-distortion and delineation failure in the targeting of the internal auditory canal , Med. Phys. 26, 166-170 (1999

A. Mack, G. Mack, S. Scheib, H. Czempiel, H.J. Kreiner, N.J. Lomax, S. Gianolini, M. Rieker, D. Weltz, R. Wolff, A. Muacevic, B. Wowra, H. D. Böttcher, and V. Seifert,
Quality assurance in stereotactic radiosurgery / radiotherapy according to DIN 6875-1 , Stereotact. Funct. Neuro-surg. 82, 235-243 (2004

A. Mack, H. Czempiel, H-J Kreiner, G. Dürr, B. Wowra,
Quality assurance in stereotactic space. A system test for verifying the aim in radiosurgery , Med Phys, 29, 561-568 (2002).

L. Ma, C. Chuang, M. Descovich, P. Petti, V. Smith, L. Verhey,
Whole-procedure clinical accuracy of Gamma Knife treatments of large lesions , Med Phys 35; 5110-5114 (2008).

L. Ma, P. Kjall, J. Novotny, H. Nordstrom, J. Johansson, L. Verhey,
A simple and effective method for validation and measurement of collimator output factors for Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion , Phys. Med. Biol. 54, 3897-907 (2009

A.H. Maitz, A.W. Wu, L.D. Lunsford, J.C. Flickinger, D.K. Kondziolka and W.D. Bloomer,
Quality assurance for gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery, Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys., 32, 1465-1471 (1995).

Radiation Therapy Oncology Group: radiosurgery quality assurance guidelines , Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, 27 (5) 1231-1239, Dec. 1993.

Schell et al “Stereotactic radiosurgery” AAPM Report No. 54, College Park, MD, American Association of Physicists in Medicine, 1994.

Stereotactic radiosurgery quality improvement:  interdepartmental collaboration , Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, 28 (2) 551-552, Jan. 1994

Drzymala et al
Assurance of high quality linac-based stereotactic radiosurgery , Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, 30  459-472, Jan. 1994.

Solberg TD, Medin PM, Mullins J, et al. Quality assurance of immobilization and target localization systems for frameless stereotactic cranial and extracranial hypofractionated radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2008;71:S131-135

Wurm RE, Erbel S, Schwenkert I, et al. Novalis frameless image-guided noninvasive radiosurgery: initial experience. Neurosurgery 2008;62:A11-17; discussion A17-18

Report of AAPM TG 135: quality assurance for robotic radiosurgery.  Dieterich S, Cavedon C, Chuang CF, Cohen AB, Garrett JA, Lee CL, Lowenstein JR, d'Souza MF, Taylor DD Jr, Wu X, Yu C. Med Phys. 2011 Jun;38(6):2914-36

CyberKnife Image-Guided Delivery and Quality Assurance Sonja Dieterich, Ph.D.,* And Todd Pawlicki, PH.D..Int. J. Radiation Oncology Biol. Phys., Vol. 71, No. 1, Supplement, pp. S126–S130, 2008 doi:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2007.08.081

Quality Assurance Procedures For Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy James M. Galvin, D.Sc., And Greg Bednarz, Ph.D.. Int. J. Radiation Oncology Biol. Phys., Vol. 71, No. 1, Supplement, pp. S122–S125, 2008 doi:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2007.10.002 


Brett W. Cox, MD, Daniel E. Spratt, MD, Michael Lovelock, PhD, Mark H. Bilsky, MD, Eric Lis, MD, Samuel Ryu, MD, Jason Sheehan, MD, Peter C. Gerszten, MD, MPH, Eric Chang, MD, Iris Gibbs, MD, Scott Soltys, MD, Arjun Sahgal, MD, Joe Deasy, PhD, John Flickinger, MD, Mubina Quader, PhD, Stefan Mindea, MD, and Yoshiya Yamada, MD International Spine Radiosurgery Consortium Consensus Guidelines for Target Volume Definition in Spinal Stereotactic Radiosurgery. Int J Radiation Oncol Biol Phys, Vol. 83, No. 5, pp. e597ee605, 2012

Paddick I. A simple scoring ratio to index the conformity of radiosurgical treatment plans. Technical note. J Neurosurg 2000;93 Suppl 3:219-222

Clark GM, Popple RA, Young PE, et al. Feasibility of single-isocenter volumetric modulated arc radiosurgery for treatment of multiple brain metastases. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2010;76:296-302

Feuvret L, Noel G, Mazeron JJ, et al. Conformity index: a review. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2006;64:333-342

Hazard LJ, Wang B, Skidmore TB, et al. Conformity of LINAC-based stereotactic radiosurgery using dynamic conformal arcs and micro-multileaf collimator. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2009;73:562-570

Lim do H, Yi BY, Mirmiran A, et al. Optimal beam arrangement for stereotactic body radiation therapy delivery in lung tumors. Acta Oncol 2010;49:219-224

Liu R, Buatti JM, Howes TL, et al. Optimal number of beams for stereotactic body radiotherapy of lung and liver lesions. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2006;66:906-912

Wagner TH, Bova FJ, Friedman WA, et al. A simple and reliable index for scoring rival stereotactic radiosurgery plans. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2003;57:1141-1149

Shortening treatment time in robotic radiosurgery using a novel node reduction technique Steven van de Water, Mischa S. Hoogeman, Sebastiaan Breedveld, and Ben J. M. Heijmen, Med. Phys. 38, 1397 (2011); doi:10.1118/1.

Schlaefer A, Schweikard A. Stepwise multi-criteria optimization for robotic radiosurgery. Med Phys. 2008 May;35(5):2094-103.

van der Voort van Zyp NC, Hoogeman MS, van de Water S, Levendag PC, van der Holt B, Heijmen BJ, et al. Clinical introduction of Monte Carlo treatment planning: a different prescription dose for non-small cell lung cancer according to tumor location and size. Radiother Oncol. 2010 Jul;96(1):55-60.

Phys. Med. Biol. 47 (2002) A Monte Carlo dose calculation tool for radiotherapy treatment planning C-MMa1,2, J S Li1,2, T Pawlicki1, S B Jiang1, J Deng1, M C Lee1, T Koumrian1, M Luxton1 and S Brain1


Bissonnette JP, Franks KN, Purdie TG, et al. Quantifying interfraction and intrafraction tumor motion in lung stereotactic body radiotherapy using respiration-correlated cone beam computed tomography. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2009;75:688-695

Murphy MJ, Chang SD, Gibbs IC, et al. Patterns of patient movement during frameless image-guided radiosurgery. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2003;55:1400-1408

Sonke JJ, Rossi M, Wolthaus J, et al. Frameless stereotactic body radiotherapy for lung cancer using four-dimensional cone beam CT guidance. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2009;74:567-574

Yin FF, Wang Z, Yoo S, et al. Integration of cone-beam CT in stereotactic body radiation therapy. Technol Cancer Res Treat 2008;7:133-139

A fast, accurate, and automatic 2D–3D image registration for image-guided cranial radiosurgery, Dongshan Fu and Gopinath Kuduvalli. Med. Phys. 35, 2180 (2008); doi:10.1118/1.2903431

Hoogeman M, Prevost JB, Nuyttens J, Poll J, Levendag P, Heijmen B. Clinical accuracy of the respiratory tumor tracking system of the cyberknife: assessment by analysis of log files. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2009 May 1;74(1):297-303.

van der Voort van Zyp NC, Hoogeman MS, van de Water S, Levendag PC, van der Holt B, Heijmen BJ, et al. Stability of Markers Used for Real-Time Tumor Tracking After Percutaneous Intrapulmonary Placement. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2011 Feb 22.

Seppenwoolde Y, Berbeco RI, Nishioka S, Shirato H, Heijmen B. Accuracy of tumor motion compensation algorithm from a robotic respiratory tracking system: a simulation study. Med Phys. 2007 Jul;34(7):2774-84.

Nioutsikou E, Seppenwoolde Y, Symonds-Tayler JR, Heijmen B, Evans P, Webb S. Dosimetric investigation of lung tumor motion compensation with a robotic respiratory tracking system: an experimental study. Med Phys. 2008 Apr;35(4):1232-40.

A Fiducial-Less Method 26 for Respiratory Motion Tracking Dongshan Fu. Treating tumors that move with respiration Harold C. Urschel, John J. Kresl, James D. Luketich – 2007

Fürweger C, Drexler C, Kufeld M, Muacevic A, Wowra B, Schlaefer A. Patient motion and targeting accuracy in robotic spinal radiosurgery: 260 single-fraction fiducial-free cases. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2010 Nov 1;78(3):937-45. Epub 2010 Apr 13.

Muacevic A, Staehler M, Drexler C, Wowra B, Reiser M, Tonn JC. Technical description, phantom accuracy, and clinical feasibility for fiducial-free frameless real-time image-guided spinal radiosurgery. J Neurosurg Spine. 2006 Oct;5(4):303-12.

Fürweger C, Drexler C, Kufeld M, Muacevic A, Wowra B. Advances in fiducial-free image-guidance for spinal radiosurgery with CyberKnife – a phantom study. J Appl Clin Med Phys. 2011. Accepted Nov 2010.

Muacevic A, Drexler C, Kufeld M, Romanelli P, Duerr HJ, Wowra B. Fiducial-free real-time image-guided robotic radiosurgery for tumors of the sacrum/pelvis. Radiother Oncol. 2009 Oct;93(1):37-44.

Fu D, Kuduvalli G, Maurer CR, Allision JW, Adler JR. 3D target localization using 2D local displacements of skeletal structures in orthogonal X-ray images for image-guided spinal radiosurgery. Int J CARS 2006;1:189-200.

Murphy MJ. An automatic six-degree-of-freedom image registration algorithm for image-guided frameless stereotaxic radiosurgery. Med Phys. 1997 Jun;24(6):857-66.

Ho AK, Fu D, Cotrutz C, Hancock SL, Chang SD, Gibbs IC, Maurer CR Jr, Adler JR Jr. A study of the accuracy of cyberknife spinal radiosurgery using skeletal structure tracking. Neurosurgery. 2007 Feb;60(2 Suppl 1):ONS147-56

Hoogeman MS, Nuyttens JJ, Levendag PC, Heijmen BJ. Time dependence of intrafraction patient motion assessed by repeat stereoscopic imaging. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2008 Feb 1;70(2):609-18. Epub 2007 Nov 8.

Murphy MJ, Chang SD, Gibbs IC, Le QT, Hai J, Kim D, Martin DP, Adler JR Jr. Patterns of patient movement during frameless image-guided radiosurgery. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2003 Apr 1;55(5):1400-8.


Grimm J, LaCouture T, Zhu Y, Xue J, Yeo I, Croce RJ.  Dose tolerance limits and dose volume histogram evaluation for stereotactic body radiotherapy.  J Appl Clin Med Phys. May 2011;12(2):267-292.

Quantitative Analyses of Normal Tissue Effects in the Clinic. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys Vol  76 No 3, March 1st, 2010 p. S1~S160 –supplement

Benedict S, Yenice K, Followill D, et al. Stereotactic body radiation therapy: The report of AAPM Task Group 101.  Med. Phys. 2010 Aug;37(8):4078-4101.

Timmerman R D 2008 An overview of hypofractionation and introduction to this issue of seminars in radiation oncology Semin Radiat Oncol 18 215-22 

Srivastava R, Asbell SO, LaCouture T, Kramer N, Pahlajani N, Xue J, Ahmad N, Chen Y, Croce R, Grimm J. Low toxicity for lung tumors near the mediastinum treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT).  Pract Radiat Oncol. April 2013;3(2):130-7.

Jun Yang, Jack Fowler, John Lamond, Rachelle Lanciano., Jing Feng, Luther Brady.  Red Shell - Defining a High Risk Zone of Normal Tissue Damage in Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy. International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics . Volume 77, Issue 3, Pages 903-909 (1 July 2010)

Clint Park, M.D. M.S., Lech Papiez, Ph.D., Shichuan Zhang, M.D., Ph.D., Michael Story, Ph.D., Robert D. Timmerman. Universal Survival Curve and Single Fraction Equivalent Dose: Useful Tools in Understanding Potency of Ablative Radiotherapy., M. International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics Volume 70, Issue 3 , Pages 847-852, 1 March 2008

M Guerrero and X. Li. Extending the linear-quadratic model for large fraction doses pertinent to stereotactic radiotherapy. Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 4825–4835 2004


Seattle Homogeneous dose distribution Prostate protocol ongoing but no longer recruiting patients

Inhomogeneous dose distribution Prostate protocol

MD Anderson Lung SBRT protocol (STARS)

RTOG 0813 Seamless Phase I/II Study of Stereotactic Lung Radiotherapy (SBRT) for Early Stage, Centrally Located, Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) in Medically Inoperable Patients

RTOG 0618 A Phase II Trial of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) in the Treatment of Patients with Operable Stage I/II Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

RTOG 0915 A Randomized Phase II Study Comparing 2 Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) Schedules for Medically Inoperable 



IAEA-TECDOC-1583 (January 2008) available online:
Commissioning of Radiotherapy Treatment Planning Systems: Testing for Typical External Beam Treatment Techniques

IAEA-TECDOC-1540 (April 2007)
Specification and Acceptance Testing of Radiotherapy Treatment Planning Systems



IAEA TRS-398 Absorbed Dose Determination in External Beam Radiotherapy:  An International Code of Practice for Dosimetry based on Standards of Absorbed Dose to Water


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